Aquaculture for Food Security, Poverty Alleviation and Nutrition

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AFSPAN Final Technical Report

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Executive summary

The objectives of the Aquaculture for Food Security, Poverty Alleviation and Nutrition (AFSPAN) project were to strengthen the knowledge base and develop new and more rigorous methodologies of quantifying the contribution of aquaculture to combat hunger and poverty, thus providing the evidence upon which sound strategies, policies and research programs can be developed to support the sustainable expansion of aquaculture to maximise its impact on food and nutrition security and poverty alleviation.

The three-year project was implemented by eighteen partners in eleven Asian, African and South American developing and Low Income, Food Deficit Countries (LIFDCs), encompassing the spectrum of development conditions and role of aquaculture in national economies. The partnership also included EU partners and international organisations.

A theory of change was elaborated and range of analytical frameworks, economic models and indicators, complemented by surveys and case studies developed. The contribution of aquaculture to national GDP, excluding multiplier effects, was found to vary from negligible in countries with emergent aquaculture sectors up to 5% or more of national GDP in countries where the sector is very dynamic. Aquaculture was shown to have helped lower global fish prices, increasing economic access for all but the very poorest consumers. Although households engaging in aquaculture were found less likely to be poor than those that did not, poor households too benefitted from engaging in fish farming, irrespective of scale of operation. Fish consumption rates of households engaged in fish farming were typically higher than national averages.

Both immanent (e.g. economic growth) and interventionist (the implementation of policies promoting aquaculture development, improving governance and capacity) factors, as well as institutional arrangements, public-private partnerships and pioneering companies and individuals, were found to be capable of creating enabling conditions for aquaculture growth. Socio-cultural factors, especially gender and ethnicity, were also important: interventions tailored to match given specific socio-cultural contexts were most likely to lead to successful adoption and retention and delivery of equitable development outcomes, thereby producing lasting impact on livelihoods.

The volumes of seafood exported from developing to developed countries were found to approximate those of seafood imported by developing from developed countries. While expensive seafood may be being exchanged for cheaper but not necessarily less nutritious seafood, thereby minimising threats to food security, there remains a lack of supporting evidence that this is the case. With the exception of Bangladesh no policies or interventions linking fish, aquaculture and nutrition were found in study countries and little is included in nutrition education on aquatic animal foods.

Project outputs are being disseminated among the development community to help improve efficiency and coordination of development initiatives focused on aquaculture that promotes food and nutrition security and alleviates poverty and helps focus research on addressing researchable gaps. The development of science outputs has also begun.

India and AFSPAN

Posted by Vishnu Bhat | 12/12/2013 | 2814 reads | Tags: Poverty, Nutrition, India, Food security

India is the second largest global fish producer after China in terms of aquaculture production. The present annual production from freshwater and brackish water aquaculture in India is estimated to be around 4.18 million tonnes and 0.25 million tonnes, respectively. Indian aquaculture has come a long way from being a traditional subsistence-level activity to a predominantly commercial enterprise in recent years, and plays a significant role as a source of food and nutritional security, poverty alleviation and overall rural development.

With diverse resources ranging from deep seas to lakes in the mountains and more than 10% of the global biodiversity in terms of fish and shellfish species, India has shown continuous and sustained increments in aquaculture production in recent years. The present scenario is that freshwater aquaculture, notably carp culture, is witnessing considerable growth with minor contributions from catfish and freshwater prawns. Similarly, the export-oriented shrimp aquaculture in coastal areas has also been growing in a rapid way.

Freshwater aquaculture, which represents about 84% of India's total production by volume, is the mainstay of Indian fisheries and aquaculture. Much of this contribution is from Indian major carps farmed through pond culture or raised in freshwater tanks and other water bodies. In fact, in India, the aquaculture sector started as a subsistence fishery amongst small and marginal farmers, subsequently, owing to export demand and other commercial gains, coastal aquaculture developed on a commercial scale with the involvement of enterprising entrepreneurs. Nevertheless, the aquaculture sector is dominated by small and marginal farmers who represent more than 90% of the industry, considering the farm holding and the number of farmers involved. Most of them are resource poor in terms of skills, financial capacity and other technical aspects.

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